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Instructions are attached · Respond to at least two (2) peers · APA format · 100 words each replyPeer 1: Natalia When

Instructions are attached 

· Respond to at least two (2) peers

· APA format

· 100 words each reply

Peer 1: Natalia

When considering the ease of learning reversals in the symbolic matching-to-sample task for pigeons, it is essential to evaluate the principles of “common coding” or mediated generalization. These concepts suggest that learning is facilitated when there is a shared or common element in the stimuli that aids in generalizing responses across different but related tasks.

In the experiment, pigeons initially learn to associate two different sample stimuli with the same comparison response (e.g., Red and Yellow with Vertical, Green and Blue with Horizontal). They are then subjected to either a whole reversal or a partial reversal.

In the
whole reversal scenario, all initial associations are completely switched. Red and Yellow, initially mapped to Vertical, are now mapped to Horizontal, and Green and Blue, initially mapped to Horizontal, are now mapped to Vertical:

· R → V becomes R → H

· Y → V becomes Y → H

· G → H becomes G → V

· B → H becomes B → V

In the
partial reversal scenario, only some of the associations are switched:

· R → V becomes R → H

· Y → V remains Y → V

· G → H remains G → H

· B → H becomes B → V

From the perspective of mediated generalization, the partial reversal should be learned more easily. This is because only two of the four associations are reversed, reducing the cognitive load on the pigeons. They do not need to unlearn and relearn every association but can rely on their existing knowledge for half of the associations. Specifically:

· Red now maps to Horizontal instead of Vertical.

· Blue now maps to Vertical instead of Horizontal.

However, the associations for Yellow and Green remain the same. This consistency provides a stable foundation, allowing pigeons to more easily adjust to the changes for Red and Blue by leveraging their understanding of the unchanged mappings.

In contrast, the whole reversal requires the pigeons to entirely rewire their learned associations without any stability in the mappings. Every association needs to be unlearned and relearned, which is a more complex and demanding task.

Therefore, due to the principles of mediated generalization and the reduced cognitive load, the partial reversal should be learned more easily by the pigeons compared to the whole reversal.

Peer 2: Heymi

When it comes to training pigeons and Common Coding or Mediated Generalization the reversal that could work for them better is “partial reversal. According to Bouton, (2016)Common Coding suggests that organisms represent both stimuli and responses using a shared internal code. Instead of separate representations for “Red” and “Vertical,” there’s a more abstract representation linking the concept of “Red” with the appropriate response in the current context.Mediated Generalization: This refers to the ability to generalize learning to new situations based on the shared, abstract relationships between stimuli and responses (Di Vesta, 1962) .

When you apply this process to the Pigeon Experiment you will have an Initial Learning where the pigeons learn to associate color groups (R/Y and G/B) with specific orientations (V and H). This establishes a common code linking these concepts.If you do a complete Reversal on them, everything is flipped. This requires breaking the established common code and forming entirely new associations. The pigeons must re-learn the entire task from scratch.In the case of doing a partial reversal with the pigeons , this reversal maintains some of the original common coding.The relationship between Red/Yellow and Green/Blue remains consistent. Only the orientation mapping changes (from V/H to H/V).

Hence we see how the partial reversal allows the pigeons to leverage their existing knowledge. They can retain the learned association between the color groups while adapting to the new orientation rule. This makes the learning process faster and more efficient compared to the complete reversal, which demands a complete overhaul of their understanding.

Reference:

Bouton, M. E. (2016).
Learning and Behavior (2nd ed.). Oxford University Press Academic US.

Di Vesta, F. J. (1962). Effects of Mediated Generalization on the Development of Children’s Preferences for Figures.
Child Development,
33(1), 209–220.

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